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        自主創新鑄就大國重器

        發布日期: 2018-12-25

          在“偉大的變革——慶祝改革開放40周年大型展覽”第五部分“大國氣象”展區“中國制造成績斐然”單元,一個懸吊式的閥塔吸引了眾人的目光——

          世界上電壓等級最高、容量最大的換流閥,按照1∶6的比例制作成模型后,依然是個“大家伙”。而實際應用于世界上首個±1100千伏特高壓直流輸電工程昌吉—古泉特高壓直流輸電工程的換流閥,更是龐然大物——高14米,長7.2米,寬4.2米,重量超過10噸。

          來來往往的人群感到新奇。他們有的點開換流閥模型前面的屏幕,了解換流閥的組成部分、工作原理、工程應用等;有的通過多媒體觸摸屏觀賞壯美的特高壓工程的宣傳片。

          換流閥由南瑞集團自主研發。作為直流換流閥項目團隊負責人,張翔在此次展覽中擔任講解員。“這個換流閥模型完整地呈現了一個懸吊式閥塔,包括頂層蔽罩、6個閥層、底層蔽罩及其他附件……”

          就在一個月前,昌吉—古泉特高壓直流輸電工程已經順利完成雙極低端系統調試。張翔懷著激動之情向人們描繪著這一歷史性時刻,而當初研發的艱辛和不易也浮現在他眼前。

          昌吉—古泉特高壓輸電工程是當今世界上電壓等級最高、輸送容量最大、輸送距離最遠的直流輸電工程,也是技術難度最大的工程。“作為特高壓直流工程的主要設備供應商,南瑞集團有底氣挑戰艱巨的任務。”該集團繼電保護專家李海英說。

          電壓等級從±800千伏提升到±1100千伏,給特高壓直流輸電核心設備——換流閥提出了更高的技術要求。“我們面臨的首要問題是如何提高換流閥的外絕緣耐壓能力。閥廳尺寸不會大幅增加,需要從換流閥的結構優化設計入手,全面研究換流閥內外電場,并設計可靠的試驗手段,對優化后的換流閥外絕緣進行驗證。”研發負責人方太勛說。

          項目組研發團隊認真分析了換流閥內大到屏蔽罩小到螺栓的電場分布,從曲率半徑、弧度、長度、高度等多個維度優化相關部件的結構。最終,團隊確定了換流閥結構,最大電場強度比原先降低了25%。

          為了更接近實際工況,研發人員設計了一種用于驗證外絕緣強度的閥塔,設計、采購了超過10種試驗設備,用近兩個月時間完成3大項19小項絕緣型式試驗和4項研發試驗。

          試驗結果表明,新的換流閥結構完全滿足工程使用要求,并且保證安全。

          閥電抗器是換流閥內部的重要元器件,起到抑制電流上升速率過快、保護晶閘管的關鍵作用。直流電壓等級大幅提高后,閥電抗器內部的鐵芯溫度也會升高。閥電抗器鐵芯如何散熱,是項目組遇到的又一個關鍵問題。

          項目組優化了閥電抗器的結構,并設計了一種內部鐵芯精確測溫的方法。負責研發的孫健和同事們找到了光纖作為測溫材料,能有效隔離高電壓,抗干擾性強,能準確測量電抗器鐵芯溫度。測溫結果表明結構優化對散熱效果影響很明顯,滿足了使用要求。

          問題一個個迎刃而解。在昌吉—古泉特高壓直流輸電工程雙極低端系統調試中,換流閥運行穩定,額定負荷運行時各項參數都滿足設計要求。南瑞集團換流閥又一次經受住了考驗。

          “正是這樣務實、求精的工作態度換來了今天我們看到的這個模型。”張翔說。對參觀者來說,這個模型體現著改革開放40年來我國裝備制造水平的提升。而對張翔和他的團隊來說,這還代表著他們兢兢業業勇攀技術高峰的努力。

          昌吉—古泉特高壓直流輸電工程是國家“西電東送”戰略重點工程。能夠為這個工程貢獻自己的一份力量,張翔感到很幸運。他說,南瑞集團將繼續開展特高壓核心技術研發,持續提升自主創新能力,為推動電力科技進步和能源變革轉型,服務和支撐經濟社會發展作出積極貢獻。

          信息來源:國家電網報

         

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